More than 20 reputable sources, ranging from research studies to the Global Body Dimension Database, inform thousands of data points about women’sanatomy, sizing variations, muscle energy, and outputs. These data points are reviewed and analyzed by Liv Design leaders to create three layers of data: Body Dimensions, Muscular Activity, and Strength Patterns.
We use a collection of body dimensions data, including average anatomical measurements for both men and women, as we set a woman’s fit on the bike. The optimal fit we create brings a woman’s body into a comfortable seated position with ideal placement of contact points, and situates her body to deliver maximum power output.
Figure 1. These are the average anatomical differences between men and women of the same height. Liv uses this data for setting body position and contact points like narrower handlebars, smaller grips, women’s-specific saddle design, and crank length.
- Crotch Height
- Sitting Height
- Shoulder Breadth
- Shoulder to Grip
- Hand Length
- Hand Breadth
- Hip Breadth, sitting
- Foot Length
- Foot Breadth
Figure 2. Looking at the average body measurements of men and women of 5’7” and of 5’3”, we see significant anatomical differences that will determine the best bike fit. Notice that differences in proportions become more pronounced for shorter men and women.
Figure 3. When we put the average woman onto her closest sized men’s frame, we see that she becomes too bent over and stretched out. Not only can this negatively impact her power output, pedal efficiency and balance for bike control, but it alsocan result in pain points such as lower back pain, neck pain, elbow pain, and numbing of the hands. Riding in the wrong position may lead to injury down the road…or trail.
Figure 4. Height Distribution applies to how we decide our frame sizing range. Liv is committed to proper bike fit for the majority of women, short and tall. We recognize that there is a range of body shapes and sizes that overlap. But our research shows us that women's-specific componentry plays a big role in women's comfort on the bike.
Figure 5. Liv bicycle designs emphasize women’s fierce lower body strength, taking into account her natural muscle firing pattern. Here we see the data found that women activate the rectus femoris (front thigh) muscles more so than men while cycling.
- Rectus Femoris
- Vastus Lateralis
- Vastus Intermedius
- Vastus Medialis
Figure 6. Here we compare the proportions of how average men and women recruit strength from their lower body and upper body. Notice that a woman’s percentage of lower body to upper body strength is greater than that of a man’s. We use this data on strength differences to tailor the stiffness and compliance of our frames to meet a woman’s power demands, without sacrificing the strength and durability of the frame. This delivers a unique carbon layup in each of our composite frames for a tough, yet feather-light bike and a super comfortable ride.
- Total Body Strength
- Upper Extremities Strength
- Lower Extremities Strength
- Trunk Strength
- Dynamic Strength
- Global Body Dimension Database, PeopleSize Software, 2008-current
- Anthropometric Source Book Volume I Anthropometry for Designers, (NASA), Churchill, E , 1978 (note this source is also used in analyzing Muscular Strength Data)
- Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adult, United States 2007_2010, Fryar CD, 2012
- The Evolution of Adult height in Europe: A Brief Note, Jaume Garcia, 2007
- Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
- Health Survey for England 2014 Trend Tables, NHS Digital, 2015
- Geographic Variation of Stature in Chinese Youth of 18 over, Z Ying-Xiu, 2011
Muscular Activity Data
- Sex differences in endurance capacity and metabolic response to prolonged, heavy exercise. Froberg K,1984
- The Relevance of Sex Differences in Performance Fatigability. Hunter SK, 2016
- Sex differences in muscle fatigability and activation patterns of the human quadriceps femoris. Clark, 2005
- Effects of Bicycle Frame Ergonomics on Triathlon 10-km Running Performance. Garside I, 2000
- Cardiorespiratory Responses to Seat-tube Angle Variation During Steady-state Cycling. Heil DP, 1995
- Effect of variation in seat tube angle at different seat heights on submaximal cycling performance in man. Price D, 1997
- Influence of Bicycle Seat Tube Angle and Hand Position on Lower Extremity Kinematic and Neuromuscular Control: Implications for Triathlon Running Performance.
- Effect of Seat Tube Angle and Exercise Intensity on Muscle Activity Patterns in Cyclists. Duggan W, 201
- Muscle Coordination of Maximum-speed Pedaling. Raasch CC, 1997
- J of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 1981